Transformation und Nachhaltigkeit

Die touristische Angebotsseite befindet sich in einem zunehmenden Transformationsprozess, welcher der globalen Verantwortung des Tourismus sowie geänderten Reisemotivationen und -anforderungen Rechnung trägt. Eine zentrale Frage hierbei ist, wie Regionen und Destinationen eine Transformation, z.B. in ihrer Steuerungsstruktur oder ihrer Zielgruppenausrichtung, bewerkstelligen können. Weiterführend sind Digitalisierung und Mobilität wichtige Segmente eines zukunftsorientierten Tourismus, der gleichzeitig Treiber der Globalisierung ist, aber auch Re-Territorialisierung begünstigen kann. Wir verfolgen dabei die Perspektive, dass der Tourismus in immer stärker verschwimmenden Grenzen zwischen Freizeit und Arbeit, Region und Destination, Gast und Gastgeber, sowie im Gefüge temporärer Konzepte einer multidisziplinären und anwendungsnahen Forschung bedarf.

Journalbeiträge

The application of blockchain in tourism: use cases in the tourism value system

In: European Journal of Tourism Research, 2020

Autoren
Hannes Thees
Greta Erschbamer
Harald Pechlaner

Link: https://ejtr.vumk.eu/index.php/about/article/view/1933

Abstract
The blockchain technology has witnessed growing interest since cryptocurrencies became popular in 2016. Not only through payment issues, but the tourism sector is also likely to be affected by the blockchain in terms of front- and back-stage processes. As the blockchain could replace traditional intermediaries, the structure of the tourism sector in the future has been discussed widely in the news. This article aims to conceptually examine the implications of blockchain along the value system in the tourism industry in order to identify its potential benefits. To address this, the methodology follows a content analysis of 175 news articles on the topic of blockchain and tourism, which are analysed through a qualitative news analysis and the method of GABEK®. The results imply blockchain applications along with the whole tourism value system, while it became apparent that traveling is streamlined through the transformation of time-intensive back-stage processes and thus offers extra value for travellers. Through its novelty in the academic discourse, the paper makes obstacles and regulations a subject of discussion, too.

Resilientes Reisen als neues Paradigma?

In: Zeitschrift für Tourismuswissenschaft, 2019

Autoren
Harald Pechlaner
Daniel Zacher

Link: https://www.degruyter.com/view/journals/tw/11/3/article-p451.xml

Abstract
Die zunehmend größer werdende Reiseerfahrung bringt sowohl für die touristischen Destinationen als auch für die Reisenden selbst neue Herausforderungen mit sich. Aktuelle Debatten um den so genannten Overtourism brechen einer neuen Tourismuskritik Bahn, die unter geänderten Vorzeichen zu betrachteten ist. Reisende werden im vorliegenden Beitrag als resilient Reisende charakterisiert; ihre Bedürfnisse, Wünsche und potenziellen Reaktionen auf aktuelle Entwicklungen werden diskutiert.
Der Resilienzansatz liefert in seiner multidisziplinären Verankerung aus mehreren Perspektiven einen Blick auf den Gast von Morgen. Einiges deutet darauf hin, dass Destinationen und Destinations-Managements den aktuellen gesellschaftlichen und ökonomischen Rahmenbedingungen künftig in stärkerem Maße Rechnung zu tragen haben, wollen sie die resilient Reisenden erfolgreich adressieren.
Noch ist nicht klar, was dem Gast dazu motiviert, eine touristische Reise anzutreten. Der Mehrwert des Reisens wird von resilient Reisenden neu definiert. Wenn sich die Destinationen den Wünschen und Vorstellungen dieser Zielgruppen öffnen und die Gelegenheit wahrnehmen, im Rahmen geeigneter Beteiligungsformate eine aktive Partizipation an der Gestaltung des regionalen Destinationsraums hervorzurufen, stehen die Chancen gut, auch die resilient Reisenden künftig zu ihren Gästen zählen zu können.
Für die resilient Reisenden rückt das Reisen als gesellschaftliches Phänomen in den Vordergrund – eine tiefergreifende Reflexion findet statt. Vor diesem Hintergrund entscheiden resilient Reisende, welche die Identifikationsorte sind, die einen Mehrwert des Reisens begründen und wann, auf welche Weise und ob sie überhaupt im klassischen Sinne eine Reise antreten.

Alternative Product Development as Strategy Towards Sustainability in Tourism: The Case of Lanzarote

In: Sustainability, 2019

Autoren
Christian Eckert
Harald Pechlaner

Link: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/13/3588

Abstract
Currently, tourist destinations are, more than ever, confronted with specific challenges and also negative impacts arising from overarching developments. In order to address such challenges and to reduce negative impacts resulting from tourism, sustainable development has emerged as a widely accepted approach. Under special consideration of seemingly successful destinations, this article aims to identify complementary strategies towards sustainability in tourism, instead of developing completely new strategies which replace the existing ones. This will be done in the course of endogenous values and structures within a destination. To discuss this issue, the Canary island of Lanzarote is used as case in point, via a qualitative interview series consisting of eleven interviews with different direct and indirect tourism stakeholders from the island, which have been evaluated according to the GABEK®-method (German abbreviation for “GAnzheitliche BEwältigung von Komplexität”: holistic coping of complexity). The results show that aspects of mass tourism have a negative impact on the island and therefore a seemingly successful destination, at least in quantitative terms, is confronted with issues of sustainability and a need for action. In this field, diversification regarding both new offers and target groups is helpful to enable tourism and regional development to be more sustainable. In consequence and from a conceptual point of view, alternative product development as a new approach towards sustainability in tourism within established destinations will be presented.

Transition management towards sustainable mobility in Alpine destinations: realities and realpolitik in Italy's South Tyrol region.

In: Journal of sustainable tourism, 2016

Authors
Anna Scuttari
Michael Volgger
Harald Pechlaner

Link https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09669582.2015.1136634?journalCode=rsus20

Abstract

Sustainable mobility, including public transport and human-powered slow mobility is a priority for the sustainable development of tourism destinations, but it is a complex challenge to devise, implement and manage. This paper explores the mechanisms and conditions governing transition towards sustainable mobility in destinations, using a complexity-based approach. Destinations are understood as complex adaptive systems where social-ecological, socio-technical and socio-political subsystems interact dynamically with the tourism subsystem. These subsystems are interwoven and undergo significant, and inter-related, changes during transition towards more sustainable mobility. Three examples from the tourism intensive Alpine destination of South Tyrol (Italy) illustrate subsystem interactions during the transition process. Key player interview-based qualitative research indicates that the complexity of transition management is rooted particularly in the paired presence of risk aversion among local stakeholders and the unpredictability of visitor flows. Mitigating risk aversion through collective knowledge creation and offering answers to unpredictability by developing a strong adaptive and (re)organisation capacity seem to be required to adjust sustainable mobility solutions to continuous market changes, to convince stakeholders and to guarantee incremental and durable success. The public sector's special role is noted, as are the time demands of transition management, and the value of both formal and informal partnerships.

Overcoming the Limits to Change and Adapting to Future Challenges : Governing the Transformation of Destination Networks in Western Australia.

In: Journal of travel research, 2014

Autoren
Christof Pforr
Harald Pechlaner
Michael Volgger
Graham Thompson,

Link: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0047287514538837

Abstract

This article presents a study that investigates the organizational transformation of regional tourism in Western Australia in order to make it fit for future. In principle, it explores how the past influences adaptation to upcoming challenges in the Asia-Pacific region (and beyond), such as for example reorganizing territorial dimensions in destination management. Specifically, the article considers how an imposed merger of two previously separate tourism regions affects the established communication and collaboration structures among stakeholders. To analyze the inhibiting force of historically grown destination network structures  and  the  potential  for  changing  these  networks,  the  article  combines  the  concepts  of  path  dependence/path  creation and stasis-based/change-based momentum with a quantitative social network analysis. The study provides evidence of remarkable persistence of destination networks. However, the study exhibits also path-creating processes: A transformation of destination networks to meet future challenges in tourism seems to depend largely on an effective governance of informal communication.

From destination management towards governance of regional innovation systems – the case of South Tyrol, Italy

In: Tourism review, 2012

Autoren
Harald Pechlaner
Marcus Herntrei
Sabine Pichler
Michael Volgger,

Link: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/16605371211236123/full/html

Abstract

Purpose – In South Tyrol, Italy, and in other alpine destinations, the role of publicly financed tourism destination management has traditionally a strong focus on image promotion. In South Tyrol, three further regional public management organisations have recently been founded with the aim of developing the location by expanding its innovation and export capabilities, especially for small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). All four public organisations aim to increase the competitiveness of local companies through creating a more efficient management of destination and location. The cooperation between the four organisations and further public and private regional stakeholders might be regarded as a regional innovation system (RIS). This paper aims to analyse and discuss within the frame of a case study, the structure of the cooperation between the four public organisations and if it can be regarded as a developing South Tyrolean regional innovation system. The paper aims to focus on the roles of the four organisations, possible synergies and implications for regional governance.

Design/methodology/approach – Four qualitative interviews were conducted with the directors of the four organisations, based on four open questions. The interviews were analysed using the GABEK technique and WinRelan software. These combined techniques helped to visualise the processes within and between social organisations. Further, they helped to show, structure and organise respondents’ experiences and opinions, and enabled the researchers to identify opportunities and difficulties, even in such complex structures.

Findings – The results of the study show there exists a cooperation of semi-private organisations in South Tyrol, which shows characteristics of being a central part of a developing regional innovation system. The four analysed organisations work on different tasks and positions in the promotion and management of the region under a set of common goals. The destination management organisation takes a central and important part in the regional innovation system. Its umbrella brand is an integrating element for the entire cooperation. Nevertheless, the analysed organisations have unrealised potential for further cooperation. The realisation of synergies, and a clearer definition of responsibilities by the regional government, are seen as the bases for better regional governance and for the implementation of an effective regional innovation system in South Tyrol.

Research limitations/implications – This study has some limitations, including that further research on this approach is needed in order to characterize the whole regional innovation system. Furthermore a comparative study with other regions should be conducted.

Originality/value – The processes behind the development of an integrated regional management and marketing can be observed in several alpine regions (such as Graubünden, Tyrol) and major cities (for example, Zürich, Bern). South Tyrol underwent a long process of umbrella brand development – the basis for the integration of economic and tourist promotion. Through the integration and development of the product, other facets were enhanced, including marketing, innovation, the establishment of new enterprises and exports, which together can be regarded as regional innovation systems. This case study shows the synergies of the different regional actors, as well as implications for the governance of such regional innovation systems. In this way, the paper adds value to the discussion, how regional innovation processes can be initiated and governed, considering the role of the destination management organisation.

Herausgeberschaften

Destination Resilience Challenges and Opportunities for Destination Management and Governance

Herausgeber
Elisa Innerhofer
Martin Fontanari
Harald Pechlaner

Link: https://www.routledge.com/Destination-Resilience-Challenges-and-Opportunities-for-Destination-Management/Innerhofer-Fontanari-Pechlaner/p/book/9781138572683

Abstract
This book calls for rethinking the meaning of sustainable development in tourism and explores how sustainability and resilience could be integrated. It argues that these concepts should be seen as interwoven processes, rather than alternative approaches. Resilience should be understood as a fundamental part of sustainable tourism thinking for destination systems. This can be achieved by calling for better governance in implementation and management. With insights from leading experts, chapters focus on resilient destinations from this governance perspective, in which tourism resilience is contextualized as an integral part of pathway creation in the process of moving towards sustainable tourism. The chapters represent a range of theoretical and empirical approaches with a wide international scope to demonstrate how governance is the key issue in sustainable tourism development.

This book will appeal to a wide range of research disciplines and students whose modules focus on the relationship between tourism with respect to sustainability planning, governance, environment, and hazards and disasters.

Buchbeiträge

Interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity and postdisciplinarity in tourism and hospitality education.

In: Dredge, Dianne ; Airey, David ; Gross, Michael J. (Hrsg.): The Routledge Handbook of Tourism and Hospitality Education, 2015.

Autoren
Michael Volgger
Harald Pechlaner

Link: https://www.routledgehandbooks.com/doi/10.4324/9780203763308.ch7

The potential of energy tourism : a multiple case study on renewable energy-based tourist attractions.

In: Reddy, Maharaj Vijay ; Wilkes, Keith (Hrsg.): Tourism in the Green Economy, 2015.

Autoren
Lena-Marie Lun
Michael Volgger
Harald Pechlaner

Link: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781315885681/chapters/10.4324/9781315885681-19

Abstract:

Samui Island in Thailand, this chapter focuses upon to illustrate the attempts of tourism stakeholders to adopt green practices to address the serious environmental impacts resulting from mass tourism. In Thailand, there is political will to support the green economy, as evidenced by the Government's endorsement of the 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and its subsequent adoption of regulatory policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions, waste accumulation and improving resource efficiency. Further at the national level, the Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT), established in 1959, is advancing promotional campaigns and projects aimed at raising awareness about climate change and environmental preservation among public and private sector providers and travelers. The chapter concludes by arguing in favour of a break from traditional forms of policy-making towards policy-making which is in tune with more socially complex and highly competitive multiple-use environments that Samui has become.

Der Change-Korridor in der Stagnationsphase von Destinationen am Beispiel der nordindischen Destination Mussoorie.

In: Boksberger, Philipp ; Schuckert, Markus (Hrsg.): Innovationen in Tourismus und Freizeit : Hypes, Trends und Entwicklungen, 2011.

Autoren
Harald Pechlaner
Christopher Reuter

Link: https://www.esv.info/978-3-503-13099-3